# Oh! Matryoshka!

Given polynomial $f(x) = a_0 + a_1 x+a_2 x^2 + ... + a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+a_n x^n$, we wish to evaluate integral $\int \frac{f(x)}{(x-a)^p}\;dx, \quad p \in N^+\quad\quad\quad(1)$

When $p = 1$, $\int \frac{f(x)}{x-a} \;dx= \int \frac{f(x)-f(a)+f(a)}{x-a}\;dx$ $= \int \frac{f(x)-f(a)}{x-a}\;dx + \int \frac{f(a)}{x-a}\;dx$ $=\int \frac{f(x)-f(a)}{x-a}\;dx + f(a)\cdot \log(x-a)$.

Since $f(x) = a_0 + a_1x + a_2x^2 + ... + a_{n-1}x^{n-1} + a_n x^n$

and $f(a) = a_0 + a_1 a + a_2 a^2 + ... + a_{n-1}a^{n-1} + a_n a^n$

It follows that $f(x)-f(a) = a_1(x-a) + a_2(x^2-a^2) + ... + a_{n-1}(x^{n-1}-a^{n-1}) + a_n (x^n-a^n)$.

That is $f(x)-f(a) = \sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}a_k(x^k-a^k)$

By the fact (see “Every dog has its day“) that $x^k-a^k =(x-a)\sum\limits_{i=1}^{k}x^{k-i}a^{i-1}$,

we have $f(x)-f(a) = \sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}a_k(x-a)\sum\limits_{i=1}^{k}x^{k-i}a^{i-1}=(x-a)\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}(a_k\sum\limits_{i=1}^{k}x^{k-i}a^{i-1})$

or, $\frac{f(x)-f(a)}{x-a}= \sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}(a_k\sum\limits_{i=1}^{k}x^{k-i}a^{i-1})\quad\quad\quad(2)$

Hence, $\int\frac{f(x)}{x-a}\;dx = \int \sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}(a_k \sum\limits_{i=1}^{k}x^{k-i}a^{i-1})\;dx + f(a)\log(x-a)$ $=\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}(a_k \sum\limits_{i=1}^{k}\int x^{k-i}a^{i-1}\; dx)+ f(a)\log(x-a)$

i.e., $\int \frac{f(x)}{x-a} = \sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}(a_k\sum\limits_{i=1}^{k}\frac{x^{k-i+1}}{k-i+1}a^{i-1})+ f(a)\log(x-a)$

Let us now consider the case when $p>1$: $\int \frac{f(x)}{(x-a)^p}\; dx$ $=\int \frac{f(x)-f(a)+f(a)}{(x-a)^p}\;dx$ $=\int \frac{f(x)-f(a)}{(x-a)^p} + \frac{f(a)}{(x-a)^p}\;dx$ $=\int \frac{f(x)-f(a)}{(x-a)}\cdot\frac{1}{(x-a)^{p-1}} + \frac{f(a)}{(x-a)^p}\;dx$ $= \int \frac{f(x)-f(a)}{x-a}\cdot\frac{1}{(x-a)^{p-1}}\;dx + \int\frac{f(a)}{(x-a)^p}\; dx$ $\overset{(2)}{=}\int \frac{g(x)}{(x-a)^{p-1}}\;dx + \frac{f(a)(x-a)^{1-p}}{1-p}$

where $g(x) = \frac{f(x)-f(a)}{x-a}=\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}(a_k\sum\limits_{i=1}^{k}x^{k-i}a^{i-1})$, a polynomial of order $n-1$.

What emerges from the two cases of $p$ is a recursive algorithm for evaluating (1):

Given polynomial $f(x) = \sum\limits_{k=0}^{n} a_k x^k$, $\int \frac{f(x)}{(x-a)^p} \;dx, \; p \in N^+= \begin{cases}p=1: \sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}(a_k\sum\limits_{i=1}^{k}\frac{x^{k-i+1}}{k-i+1}a^{i-1})+ f(a)\log(x-a) \\p>1: \int \frac{g(x)}{(x-a)^{p-1}}\;dx + \frac{f(a)(x-a)^{1-p}}{1-p}, \\ \quad\quad\quad g(x) = \frac{f(x)-f(a)}{x-a}=\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}(a_k\sum\limits_{i=1}^{k}x^{k-i}a^{i-1}). \end{cases}$

Exercise-1 Optimize the above recursive algorithm (hint: examine how it handles the case when $f(x)=0$)